Literature about Children Born of War

About this section

We are constantly updating this section. If you have additional literature to be included, please send it to: info@cbowproject.org


Tabel of content

1) Latest publications
2) General
3) Gender-based violence in wars and conflicts
3a) General
3b) Rape as a weapon of war
3c) Rape as a war crime
3d) Health and psychological effects of rape
4) World War II
4a) Relationships between foreign soldiers and local women
4b) Children Born of War and Occupation
5) Literatur per region
5a) Europe
5b) Africa
5c) North America
5d) South America
5e) Asian Pacific
5f) Rest of the world
6) Responses to issues relating to Children Born of War
7) The Rights of the Children Born of War
8) Advocacy: Sexual Exploitation, Violence, and Children Born of War

9) Literature of CBOW Board Members


1) Latest publications

Angeniet Berkers Photobook about Lebensborn https://www.voordekunst.nl/projecten/15607/
News about the book publication:
Book release
Book has been shortlisted for the Recontres-Darles Book award

„Children and Youth at Risk in Times of Transition. International and Interdisciplinary Perspectives”: https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/9783111010649/html

Rafaela Schmid: Vaterdezentrierungen. Psychoanalytische Entgegnungen zum Fachdiskurs über >Besatzungskinder< “Decentering of the fathers”. Psychoanalytic reflection on the reserch discourse on “Occurpation children“. More details and review here

Flavia Guerrini: Vom Feind ein Kind. Nachkommen alliierter Soldaten erzählen “A child form the enermy. Descendants of allied soldier narrate. More details and review here

Knut Weise: “Shadow Kids”, Breda, NL


2) General


Becirbasic, Belma and Dzenana Secic, 2002, ‘Invisible Casualties of War’, Star Magazine,
Sarajevo, BCR No. 383S

Carpenter, R. Charli (ed.),Born of War. Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in
Conflict Zones (Bloomfield: Kumarian Press, 2007)


Carpenter, Charli R., ‘International Agenda-Setting in World Politics: Issue Emergence and
Non-Emergence Around Children and Armed Conflict’, (2005)
[http://www.du.edu/gsis/hrhw/working/2005/30-carpenter-2005.pdf]

Lee, S. (2017). Children born of war in the twentieth century. Manchester University Press.

Erjavec, K. and Volcic, Z. (2010). ́Target ́, ́cancer ́and ́warrior ́: Exploring painful metaphors of self-presentation used by girls born of war rape. Discourse Society, 21 (5), 524-543. 


D.Costa, Bina, War Babies: The Question of National Honour in the Gendered Construction
of Nationalism: From Partition to Creation (unpublished PhD thesis, Australian National
University, 2003) [http://www.drishtipat.org/1971/docs/warbabies_bina.pdf]


Haller, Bent. 2018. Når krigen slutter. Lindhardt og Ringhof.
Ismail, Zahra, Emerging from the Shadows. Finding a Place for Children Born of War
(unpublished M.A. Thesis, European University Centre for Peace Studies, Austria, 2008)


McKinley, James C. jr., ‘Legacy of Rwanda Violence: The Thousands Born of Rape’, New
York Times, 25 September 1996


Mochmann, Ingvill C. 2017. Children Born of War – A Decade of International and
Interdisciplinary Research. Historical Social Research 42 (1): 320-346. doi:
10.12759/hsr.42.2017.1.320-346.

Carpenter, R. C. (2004). Norms, international agenda-setting and dogs that don’t bark: children born of wartime rape as a non-issue for the children’s rights network. Retrieved from http://people.umass.edu/charli/childrenbornofwar/Carpenter-WP.pdf

Carpenter, R.C. (2007). Protecting children born of war. In R. C. Carpenter, (Ed.), Born of war: Protecting children of sexual violence survivors in conflict zones (pp. 210- 224). Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.

Carpenter, R. C. (2002). Protecting children born of sexual violence: A new report to the humanitarian sector. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved from https://www.fordinstitute.pitt.edu/Portals/3/Pub_PDF/protection_children_born_of_se xual_violence.pdf

Carpenter, R. C. Orphaned Again? Children born of wartime rape as a non-issue for the human rights movement. In C. Bob (Ed.). (2010), The International Struggle for New Human Rights (pp. 14-29). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Carpenter, R. C., Grieg, K., Sharkey, D., & Wheeler, R. (2005). Protecting children born of sexual violence and exploitation in conflict zones: Existing practice and knowledge gaps. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved from http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?lang=en&id=15144

McEvoy-Levy, S. (2007). Human rights culture and children born of wartime rape. In R. C. Carpenter, (Ed.), Born of war: Protecting children of sexual violence survivors in conflict zones (pp. 149-179). Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.


Parsons M. (ed), Children. The Invisible Victims of War (DSM, 2008)

Grieg, K., Sharkey, D., and Baldi, G. (2005). Protecting children born of sexual violence and exploitation in conflict zones: existing practice and knowledge gaps. Findings from consultations with humanitarian practitioners. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved from http://people.umass.edu/charli/childrenbornofwar/Protecting%20Children%20Report.pdf

DeLaet, D. (2007). Theorizing justice for children born of war. In R. C. Carpenter, (Ed.), Born of war: Protecting children of sexual violence survivors in conflict zones (pp. 128-148). Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.


Sanchez Parra, T. & Lo Iacono, Sergio. (2019). (Re)Productive Discourses: Media Coverage
of Children Born of War in Colombia. Bulletin of Latin American Research.
10.1111/blar.12976.

Goodhart, M. (2007). Children born of war and human rights: Philosophical reflections. In R. C. Carpenter, (Ed.), Born of war: Protecting children of sexual violence survivors in conflict zones (pp. 188-209). Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.


Stewart, Beth W. (2020) Place-making and the everyday lives of children born into the Lord’s
Resistance Army, Children’s Geographies, DOI: 10.1080/14733285.2020.1713994
Swillen, Gerlinda. Der Zweite Weltkrieg Ist Unsere Wiege Eine Ostbelgische Geschichte – Mit
Zeitzeugenberichten Von Wehrmachts- Und GI-Kriegskindern. GEV – Grenz-Echo-Verlag,
2019.

Goodhart, M. (2007). Sins of the fathers. War rape, wrongful procreation, and 12 children’s human rights. Journal of Human Rights, 6( 3), 307-324. doi: 10.1080/14754830701334657 


S. Torrie, Julia. (2018). German Soldiers and the Occupation of France, 1940–1944.
10.1017/9781108658935.


Voicu, Bogdan und Ingvill C. Mochmann, 2014: Social Trust and Children Born of War.
Social Change Review 12(2): 185-212


Westerlund, Lars (ed.), Children of German Soldiers: Children of Foreign Soldiers in Finland
1940—1948 , vol. 1 (Helsinki: Painopaikka Nord Print, 2011)

Westerlund, Lars (ed.), The Children of Foreign Soldiers in Finland, Norway, Denmark,
Austria, Poland and Occupied Soviet Karelia. Children of Foreign Soldiers in Finland 1940–
1948 vol. 2 (Helsinki: Painopaikka Nord Print, Helsinki 2011)


Yoon, Emily J., (2018). A cruelty special to our species: poems. New York: Ecco (Harper
Collins Publishers).


3) Gender-based violence in wars and conflicts

3a) General

Allen, Beverly, Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia
(Minneapolis, London: University of Minnesota Press, 1996)

Daniel, J. (2003). No man’s child: The war-rape orphans. M.A. thesis, Boltzmann Institute for or Human Rights, Vienna, Austria. http://people.umass.edu/charli/childrenbornofwar/Daniel-WP.pdf


Barstow, Anne Llewellyn, (ed.) War’s Dirty Secret: Rape, Prostitution, and Other Crimes
Against Women (Cleveland: The Pilgrim Press, 2000)


Bechdolf, Ute, ‘Grenzerfahrungen von Frauen. Vergewaltigungen beim Einmarsch der
französischen Besatzungstruppen in Südwestdeutschland’, in Kleiner Grenzverkehr:
Deutsch-französische Kulturanalysen, U. Jeggle and F. Raphaël (eds) (Paris: Éditions de la
Maison des sciences de l’homme, 1997) 189—208


Beck, Birgit, ‘Vergewaltigung von Frauen als Kriegsstrategie im Zweiten Weltkrieg?, in
Gewalt im Krieg. Ausübung, Erfahrung und Verweigerung von Gewalt in Kriegen des
20.Jahrhunderts,. (Münster: A. Gestrich (Jahrbuch für Historische Friedensforschung, 1995),
34—50

Carpenter, R. C. (2007). Gender, ethnicity, and children’s human rights. Theorizing babies born of wartime rape and sexual exploitation. In R. C. Carpenter, (Ed.), Born of war: Protecting children of sexual violence survivors in conflict zones (pp. 1-20). Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.

van Ee, E., & Kleber, R. J. (2013). Growing up under a shadow: Key Issues in research on and treatment of children born of rape. Child Abuse Review, 22( 6), 386- 397. doi: 10.1002/car.2270 


Beevor, A. ‘They raped every German female from eight to 80’, The Guardian, 1 May 2002
[http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/may/01/news.features11]
Benedict, Helen, ‘Why Soldiers Rape’, In These Times 13 August 2008
[http://www.inthesetimes.com/article/3848/]

Seto, D. (2016). No Place for a War Baby: The Global Politics of Children Born of Wartime . New York: Routledge. 6

Weitsman, P. (2007). Children born of war and the politics of identity. In R. C. Carpenter, (Ed.), Born of war: Protecting children of sexual violence survivors in conflict zones (pp. 110-127). Bloomfield: Kumarian Press


Brown, S. E. (2017). Gender and the genocide in Rwanda: women as rescuers and
perpetrators. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
Brownmiller, S., Against our will: Men, women and rape (New York: Simon and Schuster,
1975)

Watson, A. M. S. (2007). Children born of wartime rape: Rights and representations. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 9 (1), 20-34. doi: 10.1080/14616740601066242.


Card, Claudia, ‘Rape as a Weapon of War’, Hypatia 11 (4) (1996), 5—18
Carpenter, Charli R., ‘Surfacing Children: Limitations of Genocidal Rape Discourse’, Human
Rights Quarterly, 22 (2000), 428-477


Cohen-Pfister, L., ‘Portraying mass wartime rape in the documentary: Befreier and Befreite
and Calling the Ghosts’, West Virginia University Philological Papers, 2004.
Dowds, Eithne. (2019). Children Born of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in Conflict: The
International Criminal Court, Ecological Environments and Human Development. Children &
Society. 33. 226-238. 10.1111/chso.12329.


Farwell, Nancy, ‘War Rape: New Conceptualizations and Responses’, Affilia, 19 (2004)
389—403

Gertjejanssen, Wendy Jo, Victims, Heroes, Survivors. Sexual Violence on the Eastern Front
during World War II, (unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota, 2004)
Gikes, M., ‘“There was No One Who Could Escape This Horrible Situation”: Gender Based
Violence in the American Viet Nam War, 1954-1975’, Dissertation Abstracts International
Section C, 67, 4, 2006, p. 582


Harris, Ruth, ‘The “Child of the Barbarian”: Rape, Race and Nationalism in France during the
First World War’, Past and Present 141 (1993), 170—206


Hicks, G. The Comfort Women: Japan’s Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the
Second World War (New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1995)


Hughes, Donna M. and Kathleen Foster, ‘War, Nationalism and Rape: Women Responded
by Opening a Center Against Sexual Violence in Belgrade, Serbia’, Women’s Studies
International Forum 19 (1996): 183—184


Hynes, M., K. Robertson, J. Ward, and C. Crouse. A Determination of the Prevalence of
Gender-based Violence among Conflict-affected Populations in East Timor, Disasters, 28, 3,
2004


Kappeler, Susanne, Mira Renka, and Melanie Beyer (eds.), Vergewaltigung, Krieg,
Nationalismus: Eine Feministische Kritik (Munich: Verlag Frauenoffensive, 1994)


Kleinau, Elke & Schmid, Rafaela. (2019). ‘Occupation Children’ in Germany after World War
II — Problems and Coping Strategies. Children & Society. 33. 239-252. 10.1111/chso.12323.
Ladisch, V., 2015.

From Rejection to Redress: Overcoming Legacies of Conflict-Related
Sexual Violence in Northern Uganda. Available from:
https://www.ictj.org/sites/default/files/ICTJ-Report-Uganda-Children-2015.pdf. 27 October
2015. [Accessed 05. August 2019].


MacKinnon, C.A., ‘Rape, genocide, and women’s human rights’, Harvard’s Women’s Law
Journal, 17 (1994), 8—12


Meinen, Insa, Wehrmacht und Prostitution in besetzten Frankreich (Bremen: Edition
Temmen, 2002)


Neenan, Joanne. 2018. Closing the Protection Gap for Children Born of War: addressing
stigmatisation and the intergenerational impact of sexual violence in conflict’. The London
School of Economics and Political Science.
Salzman, Todd, E., ‘Rape Camps as a Means of Ethnic Cleansing’, Human Rights Quarterly
20 (2) (1998), 348—378


Seiffert, Ruth, ‘The Second Front: The Logic of Sexual Violence in Wars’, Women’s Studies
International Forum 19 (1-2) (1996), 35—43
Seifert, Ruth. ‘Rape in Wars: Analytical Approaches’, Minerva: Woman & War, 11 (2) (1993),
17—32


Seifert, Ruth, ‘War and Rape: A Preliminary Analysis’, in Mass Rape: The War Against
Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina Alexandra Stiglmayer (ed.) (Lincoln and London: University
of Nebraska Press, 1994), 54—72

Stiglmayer, Alexandra (ed.), Mass Rape: The War against Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
(Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1994)


Csete, J. Human Rights Watch. 2002. “The War within the War: Sexual Violence Against
Women and Girls in Eastern Congo” http://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/drc/.


Groves, G, Resurreccion, B, Doneys, P. ‘Keeping the Peace is Not Enough: Human Security
and Gender-based Violence during the Transitional Period of Timor-Leste’, Journal of Social
Issues in Southeast Asia, 24, 2, (2009), pp. 186-210


Robertson, K. “Case Study on Gender-Based Violence in Timor Leste”, PRADET Timor
Lorosa’e, prepared for UNFPA Women, Peace, and Security Project, 2005


Wood, Elisabeth Jean, ‘Armed Groups and Sexual Violence: When Is Wartime Rape Rare?,
Politics and Society 37 (1) (2009), 131—162

3b) Rape as a Weapon of War

Abler, T. S. “Scalping, Torture, Cannibalism and Rape: An Ethnohistorical Analysis of
Conflicting Cultural Values in War.” Anthropologica XXXIV, 3-20, 1992.


Card, C. “Rape as a Weapon of War” Hypatia 11, 4, 1996.


Donohoe, Martin, ‘War, Rape and Genocide: Never Again?’, Medscape, 18 April 2004
[http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/491147]


Gingerich, T. and Leaning, J. “The Use of Rape as a Weapon of War in the Conflict of Darfur,
Sudan” (Boston MA: Harvard University School of Public Health, Program on Humanitarian
Crises and Human Rights, 2004)


Hardy, J. ‘Everything Old is New Again: The Use of Gender-Based Terrorism Against
Women’, Minerva: Woman & War, 19, 2, 2001, pp. 3-38


Heinecken, L. Van Der Waag-Cowling, N. ‘The Politics of Race and Gender in the South
African Armed Forces: Issues, Challenges, Lessons’, Commonwealth & Comparative
Politics, 47, 4, 2009, pp. 517-538


Littlewood, R., ‘Military Rape’, Anthropology Today, 13, 2, 1997, pp. 7-16


McCormick, R. W. “Rape and War, Gender and Nation, Victims and Victimizers: Helke
Sander’s Befreier und Befreite” Camera Obscura 46, 16, 1, 2001, pp. 99-141


Skjelsbak, I. ‘Sexual Violence in Times of War: A New Challenge for Peace Operations’,
International Peacekeeping, 8, 2, 2001, p. 69


Smith-Spark, L, ‘How Did Rape Become a Weapon of War?’, BBC News Online 8.12.2004
[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/4078677.stm]


2b) Sexual exploitation and wartime prostitution
Boling, D. Mass Rape, Enforced Prostitution, and the Japanese Imperial Army: Japan
Eschews International Legal Responsibility? (Baltimore, 1995)

Chung, H-K. “Your Comfort Vs. My Death: A Korean Woman’s Reflection on Military Sexual
Slavery by Japan”, Minjung-Theology, Korean Association of Minjung Theology, 1, 1995, pp.
149-170


Coronel, S. and Ninotchka, R., ‘For the Boys: Filipinas Expose Years of Sexual Slavery by
the United States and Japan’, Ms., 10, Nov-Dec 1993.


Foreign & Commonwealth Office and Preventing Sexual Violence Initiative (2017). Principles
for Global Action on tackling the stigma of Sexual Violence in Conflict. Retrieved from
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/645636/PSVI_
Principles_for_Global_Action.pdf


Haberling, W. ‘Army Prositution and Its Control: An Historical Study’, in Morals in Wartime:
General Survey from Ancient Times, Morals in the First World War, Morals in the Second
World War, M.D. Victor Robinson (ed.) (New York, 1943)


Hicks, G. The Comfort Women: Japan’s Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the
Second World War (New York and London, 1995)


Moon, K. H. S. Sex Among Allies: Military Prostitution in United States-Korean Relations
(New York, 1997)


Rietveld, G. (2019). When innocence and violence collide. Exploring the lives of children
born of conflict-related sexual violence among the Rohingya community. Master Thesis. VU
University Amsterdam, Faculty of Law.


Tanaka, Y. Japan’s Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery and Prostitution During World War II
and the US Occupation edited by Mark Selden, Asia’s Transformations (London & New York,
2002)

3c) Rape as a war crime

Aafjes, Astrid. Gender Violence: The Hidden War Crime, (Washington, D.C.: Women, Law
and Development International, 1998)


Barstow, A. L. (ed.) War’s Dirty Secret: Rape, Prostitution, and Other Crimes Against
Women. (Cleveland, 2000)


Beck, Birgit. ‘Rape: The Military Trials of Sexual Crimes Committed by Soldiers in the
Wehrmacht, 1939-1944’, in Home/Front: The Military, War and Gender in Twentieth-Century
Germany, Karen Hagemann and Stefanie Schüler-Springorum (eds), (Oxford and New York:
Berg, 2002), 255—273


Engle, K. ‘Feminism and Its (Dis)contents: Criminalizing Wartime Rape in Bosnia and
Herzegovina’, The American Journal of International Law, 99, 4, 2005, pp. 778-816


Goldstein, J. and Anne Tierney, Recognizing Forced Impregnation as a War Crime Under
International Law: A Special Report of the International Program, (New York: Center for
Reproductive Law & Policy, 1993)


Greer, G. ‘Rape: the Oldest and Newest War Crime’, 20 June 2008
[http://www.ippf.org/NR/exeres/AD977915-0C90-4BFB-90EE-27D4DEBC704B.htm]

Henry, Nicola, ‘The Impossibility of Bearing Witness: Wartime Rape and the Promise of
Justice’, Violence Against Women, 16, 10, 2010, pp. 1098-1119


Hillman, E. L., ‘Front and Centre: Sexual Violence in US Military Law’, Politics and Society
37, 1, 2009, pp. 101-129


MacKinnon, C. A., ‘Crimes of War, Crimes of Peace’, On Human Rights: the Oxford Amnesty
Lectures 1993, 1993, pp. 83-109


http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/uclawo4&div=9&g_sent=1&collection=j
ournals

Niarchos, Catherine N., ‘Women, War and Rape: Challenges Facing the International
Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia’, Human Rights Quarterly 17 (4) (1995), 649—690


Simons, Marlise, ‘For First Time, Court Defines Rape as War Crime’, The New York Times,
28 June 1996


Thomas, D. Q. and Regan E. R. ‘Rape In War: Challenging the Tradition of Impunity’, SAIS
Review of International Affairs, 1994, pp. 81-99

3d) Health and psychological effects of rape

Folnegovic-Smalc, V. “Psychiatric Aspects of the Rapes in the War against the Republics of
Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina” in Mass Rape: The War against Women in Bosnia-
Herzegovina, edited by Alexandra Stigmayer (Lincoln and London, 1994) pp. 174-179


Koss, M. P., Figueredo, A. J., Prince, R. J. “Cognitive Meditation of Rape’s Mental, Physical,
and Social Health Impact: Tests of Four Models in Cross-sectional Data” Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 4, 2002


Krog, A., ‘Locked into Loss and Silence: Testimonies of Gender and Violence at the South
Africa Truth Commission’ in Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender, Armed Conflict and
Political Violence, edited by Caroline O.N. Moser and Fiona C. Clark (London & New York,
2001)


Phillops, S. R., The Systematic Rape of Bosnia’s Muslims: Genocide, the Physical and
Psychological Effects of the Victim and the Victim and the Community, and the Morality of
Indifference (Emory University, 1997)


Pine, Rachel and Julie Mertus, Meeting the Health Needs of Victims of Sexual Violence in
the Balkans (NY: Center for Reproductive Law and Policy 1994)


‘Rape in War Is Common, Devastating, and Too Often Ignored’, PLoS Med 6(1), 27 January
2009


[http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000021]
Roth, M., ‘Transforming the Rape Culture That Lives in My Skull’, in Transforming a Rape
Culture, edited by Emilie Buchwald, Pamela, R. Fletcher and Martha Roth, (Minneapolis,
1993)


Vranic, S., Breaking the Wall of Silence: the Voices of Raped Bosnia (Zagreb, 1996)


4) World War II

Ericsson, K., & Simonsen, E. (2008). On the border: The contested children of the Second World War. Childhood, 15 (3). 397-414. doi: 10.1177/0907568208091670

Lemke, Y. C., & Muniz de F. (2005). Black German occupation children – Objects of study in the continuity of German race anthropology. In K. Ericsson & E. Simonsen (Eds.), Children of World War II – The hidden enemy legacy (pp. 249-266). Oslo: Bloomsbury Academic.

Muhlhauser, R. (2005). Between extermination and Germanization: Children of German men in the occupied east territories, 1942-1945. In K. Ericsson & E. Simonsen (Eds.), Children of World War II: The hidden enemy legacy (pp . 167-189). Oslo: Bloomsbury Academic.

4a) Relationships between foreign soldiers and local women


Beck, B., ‘Rape: The Military Trials of Sexual Crimes Committed by Soldiers in the
Wehrmacht, 1939-1944’, in Home/Front: The Military, War and Gender in Twentieth-Century
Germany (Oxford and New York, 2002), 255—273


Bennett, J. A. and Wanhalla, A.: Mothers’ Darlings of the South Pacific: The Children of
Indigenous Women and U.S. Servicemen, World War II. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i
Press.


Bergen, D., ‘Sex, Blood, and Vulnerability: Women Outsiders in German-Occupied Europe’,
in Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany, Robert Gellately and Nathan Stoltzfus (eds), (Princeton
and Oxford, 2001)


Bissiscombe, Perry, ‘Dangerous Liaisons: The Anti-Fraternization Movement in the US
Occupation Zones of Germany and Austria, 1945—1948’, Journal of Social History 34
(2001), 611—47.


Bland, Lucy (2017). Interracial Relationships and the “Brown Baby Question”: Black GIs,
White British Women, and Their Mixed-Race Offspring in World War II. Journal of the History
of Sexuality, Volume 26 (3), pp. 424-453.


Bos, P. ‘Feminists Interpreting the Politics of Wartime Rape: Berlin’, Journal of Women in
Culture & Society, 31, 4, 2006, pp. 995-1025


Burds, Jeffrey, ‘Sexual Violence in Europe in World War II, 1939—1945’, Politics and
Society, 37 (1) (2009,) 35—73


Carney, Amy. (2018). Marriage and Fatherhood in the Nazi SS. 10.3138/9781487515607.
Diedrichs, M., Wie geschoren wordt moet stil zitten, De omgang van Nederlandse meisjes
met Duitse militaire (Amsterdam: Boom,2007)


Domentat, T., Hallo Fräulein: Deutsche Frauen und amerikanische Soldaten (Berlin 1998)
Dowling, Siobhan, ‘Sexual Violence in World War II: New German Study Looks at Rape
Trauma 60 Years On’, Spiegel Online 22 October 2008


[http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,585779,00.html]


Drolshagen, E. D, Nicht ungeschoren davonkommen: Das Schicksal der Frauen in den
besetzten Ländern, die Wehrmachtssoldaten liebten (Hamburg,1998)


Drolshagen, E.D., Der freundliche Feind: Wehrmachtssoldaten iim besetzen Europa
(München: Droemer, 2009)


Goedde, Petra, GIs and Germans. Culture, Gender and Foreign Relations 1945—1949 (New
Haven: Yale University Press, 2003)


Gomes, C. 2018. Furriel não é Nome de Pai. Tinta da China.


Grossmann, Atina, ‘A Questions of Silence: The Rape of German Women by Occupation
Soldiers’, in West Germany under Construction: Politics, Society and Culture in the Adenauer
Era, Robert G. Moeller (ed.), Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997, 33—52

Harris, Kenneth, ‘Oversexed, Overfed, Over Here’, The New York Times, 12 February 1995


Maria Höhn, GIs and Fräuleins: The German-American Encounter in 1950s West Germany
(Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002)


Johnson, D., ‘Red Army Troops Raped Even Russian Women As They Freed Them From
Camps’, The Daily Telegraph, 24 January 2002


[http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/uclawo4&div=9&g_sent=1&collection=
journals]
Kleinschmidt, Johannes, ‘”German Fräuleins” – Heiraten zwischen amerikanischen Soldaten
und Deutschen in der Besatzungszeit 1945-1949’, Frauen in der einen Welt 4 (2) (1992),
42—58.


Kleinschmidt, Johannes, ‘Amerikaner und Deutsche in der Besatzungszeit – Beziehungen
und Probleme’, in Besatzer – Helfer – Vorbilder, Amerikanische Politik und deutscher Alltag in
Württemberg-Baden 1945 bis 1949, Dokumentation des Symposiums vom 11.10.1996 im
Stuttgarter Rathaus, Haus der Geschichte Baden-Württemberg,Landeszentrale für politische
Bildung Baden-Württemberg (ed.), (Stuttgart, 1996), 35—54


Knauth, Percy, ‘Fraternization: The word takes on a Brand-New Meaning in Germany’, Life,
2.7.1945, 26


Kuwert, P. et al., ‘Trauma and current posttraumatic stress symptoms in elderly German
women who experienced wartime rape in 1945’, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198
(2010), 450—451


Kuwert, P. and H.J. Freyberger, ‘The unspoken secret: sexual violence in World War II’,
International Psychogeriatrics 19 (4) (2007), 782—784
Lilienthal, G. Der ‘Lebenborn e.V.’ Ein Instrument nationalsozialistischer Rassenpolitik
(Stuttgart, 1985)


Lilly, Robert, Taken by Force: Rape and American GIs in Europe during World War II
(London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)Messerschmidt, James W., ‘Review Symposium: The
Forgotten Victims of World War II: Masculinities and Rape in Berlin, 1945’, Violence Against
Women, 12, (2006), 706—12


Miller, V.,‘Taken by Force: Rape and American GIs in Europe during World War II’, Cultural &
Social History, 6 (3) (2009), 385—387


Modell, John und Duane Steffey, ‘Waging War and Marriage: Military Service and Family
Formation 1940—1950’, Journal of Family History 13 (1988), 195—218


Pfau, Ann Elisabeth, Miss YourLovin. GI, Gender and Domesticity in WWII. (New York:
Columbia University Press, 2008)


Reynolds, David. J., Rich Relations: The American Occupation of Britain 1942—1945.
London: HarperCollins, 1996.


Scheck, R. ‘Collaboration of the Heart: The Forbidden Love Affairs of French Prisoners of
War and German Women in Nazi Germany*’, The Journal of Modern History, 90, 2, (2018),
pp. 351-382. 10.1086/697403.

Smith, L, ‘GIs in West End were led astray by “young sluts and vicious debauchery”’, The
Times, 1 November 2005


Stelzl-Marx, B. ‘Freier und Befreier. Zum Beziehungsgeflecht zwischen sowjetischen
Besatzungssoldaten und österreichischen Frauen.’
Swillen, Gerlinda (2016). De wieg van WO II. Oorlogskinderen op de as Brussel-Berlijn.
Brussels: ASP.


Teo, Hsu-Mind, ‘The Continuum of Sexual Violence in Occupied Germany, 1945-49’,
Women’s History Review, 5 (2) (1996), 191—218Virgili, F., ‘La France ‘virile’. Des femmes
tondues á la Libèration, (Paris, 2000)

4b) Children Born of War and Occupation


Aßmann, Anna-Lena; Kaiser, Marie; Schomerus, Georg; Kuwert, Philipp; Glaesmer, Heide:
“Stigmatisierungserfahrungen deutscher Besatzungskinder des Zweiten Weltkrieges“,
Trauma & Gewalt 04 (2015), 0294 – 0303


Bauer, I., ‘“Leiblicher Vater: Amerikaner (Neger)”. Besatzungskinder österreichisch-
afroamerikanischer Herkunft’, Früchte der Zeit. Afrika, Diaspora, Literatur und Migration, ed.
by Helmuth A. Niederle, Ulrike Davis-Sulikowski and Thomas Fillitz, (Wien 2001), 49—67.
Brauerhoch, A: ‘”Mohrenkopf”. Schwarzes Kind und weiße Nachkriegsgesellschaft in TOXI’
Frauen und Film, 60 (1997), 106—130.

Diederichs, M. (2009). Moffenkinder: Children of the occupation in the Netherlands. Historical Social Research / Historische Sozialforschung, 34(3), 304-320. Retrieved from http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-287305 


Borgersrud, L. Staten of krigsbarna: En historisk undersøkelse av statsmyndighetenes
behandling av krigsbarna i de første etterkrigsårene (University of Oslo, Department of
culture studies, 2004)


Drolshagen, E. D. Wehrmachtskinder – Auf der Suche nach dem nie gekannten Vater
(München: Droemer, 2005)


Ellingsen, D. Warring, A. Björnsdóttir, I. B., Kvinner, Krig og Kjærlighet (Oslo-Gjovik, 1995)
Ellingsen, D. Krigsbarns levekår. En registerbasert undersøkelse. Statistics Norway, Rapport
Nr. 2004/19 (Oslo, 2004)


Ericsson, Kjersti and Simonsen, Eva: Krigsbarn i fredstids, (Universitetsforlaget, 2005)
Eyferth, K. Brandt, U. Hawel, W. Farbige Kinder in Deutschland. Die Situation der
Mischlingskinder und die Aufgaben ihrer Eingliederung (München, 1960)


Fehrenbach, Heide. Race After Hitler. Black Occupation Children in Postwar Germany and
America. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005)


Frankenstein, L: Soldatenkinder. Die unehelichen Kinder ausländischer Soldaten mit
besonderer Berücksichtigung der Mischlinge (München: W. Steinbach, 1954)


Gomes. Catarina. (2013, July 13th). The Search for my Portuguese Father. Retrieved from:
http://www.catarina-gomes.com/2017/02/03/the-search-for-my-portuguese-father/?lang=en.
Grieg, Kai. „The War Children of the World.“ War and Children Identity Project (WCIP).
Bergen, 2001.

Kleinau, E., Mochmann, Ingvill C. (2015): „Wehrmachts und Besatzungskinder: Zwischen
Stigmatisierung und Integration.“ Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 65. JG, 16-17/2015, 34-40.


Kleinau, E. (2015): “Ich wollte unbedingt zur Schule, ich bin so gern zur Schule gegangen.”
Aus Besatzungskinder. Die Nachkommen alliierter Soldaten in Österreich und Deutschland.
Barbara Stelzl-Marx, Silke Satjukow (Hg.). (Wien: Böhlau Verlag), 166-180.


Latotzky, A. Kindheit hinter Stacheldraht. Mütter mit Kindern in sowjetischen Speziallagern
und DDR-Haft. (Leipzig, 2001)


Lemke Muniz de Faria, Yara-Colette, Zwischen Fürsorge und Ausgrenzung. Afrodeutsche
“Besatzungskinder” im Nachkreigsdeutschland (Berlin: Metropol Friedrich Veitl-Verlag, 2002)


Lemke Muniz de Faria, Yara-Colette, ‘Germany’s Brown Babies Must be Helped! Will You?
U.S. Adoption Plans for Afro-German Children, 1950-1955, Callaloo 25 (2) (2003), 342-362


Miertsch, Martin; Glaesmer, Heide; Mochmann, Ingvill C.; Kaiser, Marie; Freyberger, Harald
J.; Terock, Jan; Ødegaard, Ketil J.; Kuwert, Philipp: “Norwegische »Wehrmachtskinder«
Psychosoziale Aspekte, Identitätsentwicklung und Stigmatisierung“, Trauma & Gewalt 04
(2015), 0304 – 0313


Mochmann, Ingvill C. and Stein Ugelvik Larsen. „The forgotten consequences of the war,
The life course of children fathered by German soldiers in Norway and Denmark during WWII
– some empirical results.“ Historical Social Research 33 (2008): 347—63.


Mochmann, Ingvill C., S. Lee and B. Stelzl-Marx (eds.), Focus: Children born of war: Second
World War and beyond: Kinder des Krieges: Zweiter Weltkrieg und danach. Historical Social
Research / Historische Sozialforschung, Special Issue, 34 (3) (2009).


Mochmann, Ingvill C. und S. Lee (2015): „Kinder des Krieges im 20. Jahrhundert.“ Aus
Besatzungskinder. Die Nachkommen alliierter Soldaten in Österreich und Deutschland.
Barbara Stelzl-Marx, Silke Satjukow (Hg.). (Wien: Böhlau Verlag), 15-38.


Mochmann, Ingvill C. (2015): „Das International Network for Interdisciplinary research on
Children Born of War (INIRC). Stärkung der Rechte der Kinder des Krieges durch
Forschung, Vernetzen und Wissenstransfer.“ Aus Distelblüten. Russenkinder in Deutschland.
Winfried Behlau (Hg.). (Ganderkesee: Con-Thor Verlag), 144/151.


Mochmann, Ingvill C.and Sabine Lee, ‘The Human Rights of children born of war: case
analyses of past and present conflicts’, Historical Social Research / Historische
Sozialforschung, 35.(3) (2010), 268-298


Mochmann, I.C. and Larsen, S. U. ‘Kriegskinder in Europa’ In Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte,
Nr. 18-19/2005, 34-38, 2005.


Muth, Kerstin, M., Die Wehrmacht in Griechenland – und ihre Kinder, Eudora-Verlag, 2008.
Oelrich, Waldemar. „Die unehelichen Besatzungskinder der Jahrgänge 1945 bis 1954 in
Baden-Württemberg.“ Statistische Monatshefte Baden-Württemberg 2 (1956): 38–9.


Parra, T. S. (2017). The Hollow Shell: Children Born of War and the Realities of the Armed
Conflict in Colombia. International Journal of Transitional Justice, Volume (0), pp. 1-19. doi:
https://doi.org/10.1093/ijtj/ijx029


Picaper, Jean-Paul and Norz, L. Enfants Maudits (Syrtes, 2004)

Remmers, W.and Norz, L. Né maudit – verwünscht geboren – Kriegskinder,
EXPERIENZAWASt, Band 2, (Berlin: Verlag Adrian Chirita C & N, 2008)


Simonsen, E., ‘Into the Open – Or Hidden Away? The Construction of War Children as a
Social Category in Post-War Norway and Germany’, NORDEUROPA forum 2/2006, (2006),
25—49


Schrep, B. ‘Kinder der Schande’, Der Spiegel, 28/1995.


Stewart, B. W. ‘I feel out of place’: children born into the Lord’s Resistance Army and the
politics of belonging, (published Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, 2017)


Swillen, Gerlinda (2016) Verwekt door de Tweede Wereldoorlog Oorlogskinderen op de as
Brussel-Berlijn. Voorspel–Geboorte–Onthaal. Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Venken, M. & Röger, M. (2015) Growing up in the shadow of the Second World War:
European perspectives, European Review of History: Revue européenne d’histoire, 22:2,
199-220, DOI: 10.1080/13507486.2015.1008410


5) Literatur per region

5a) Europe

Virgili, F. Enfants de Boches: The war children of France. In K. Ericsson & E. Simonsen (Eds.). (2005). Children of World War II: The hidden enemy legacy (pp . 138- 150). Oslo: Bloomsbury Academic.

Fuchs, B. (2011). Love and identity – Wehrmacht children in Denmark / Liebe und Identität.

Grieg, K. (2001). The war children of the world. Bergen: War and Children Identity Project. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/2189623/The_war_children_of_the_world

Simonsen, E. (2006). Into the open – or hidden away? The construction of war 9 children as a social category in post-war Norway and Germany. NordEuropaforum , 2 , pp. 25-49. Retrieved from http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/nordeuropaforum/2006- 2/simonsen-eva-25/PDF/simonsen.pdf

Baur-Timmerbrink, U., Wir Besatzungskinder: Töchter und Söhne alliierter Soldaten
erzählen. Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag, 2015.


Behlau, W. (Hrsg.), Distelblüten. Russenkinder in Deutschland. Ganderkesee: Con-Thor
Verlag, 2015.


Heidenreich, Gisela, Das endlose Jahr. Die langsame Entdickung der eigenen Biographie –
ein Lebensborn-Schicksal (Frankfurt: Fischer, 2004)


Hügel-Marshall, Ika. Daheim unterwegs. Ein deutsches Leben. Berlin: Orlanda Verlag, 1998.
Livingston, G., ‘A Look at Interracial Adoption: An Act of Hope. My Black Son, His White
Family and Our Together’, Washington Post, June 30 1996.


Löhr Meek, P. A. Lebensborn 6210 (Kristiansund, 2002)


Rains, Olga, Lloyd Rains, and Melynda Jarratt (eds), Voices of the Left Behind (Toronto:
Project Roots, 2004)


Schmitz-Köster, D. ‘Deutsche Mutter, bist du bereit…’: Alltag im Lebensborn (Berlin, 1997)


Schmitz-Köster, D. Der Krieg Meines Vaters. Als deutscher Soldat in Norwegen (Berlin,
2004)


Simon, Alfons Maxi, unser Negerbub. Bremen: Gesellschaft für christlich-jüdische
Zusammenarbeit, 1952.


Winfield, Pam. Melancholy Baby: The Unplanned Consequences of the G.I.s’ Arrival in
Europe for World War II. Westport: Bergin & Garvey, 2000.


Winfield, Pam. Bye Bye Baby: The Story of the Children the GIs Left Behind. London:
Bloomsbury, 1992.


Yarborough, Trin, Surviving Twice. Amerasian Children of the Vietnam War (Washington:
Potomac Books, 2006)

Balkan Wars

Harris, R. (1993). The child of the barbarian: rape, race and nationalism in France during the First World War, Past & Present, 141 (1), 170-206. doi: 10.1093/past/141.1.170

Allen, B. Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia (London,
1996)

Hamel, M.-E. (2016). Ethnic belonging of the children born out of rape in postconflict Bosnia-Herzegovina and Rwanda. Nations and Nationalism , 22 (2), 287- 304.


Lambert, S. S., Covering Rape in Ethical Conflict: the Case of the Bosnian War, a Content
Analysis of The New York Times’ Coverage of Rape for the Years 1992 and 1993 (Indiana
University, 1996)


Seifert, R., ‘War and Rape: A Preliminary Analysis’, in Mass Rape: The War Against Women
in Bosnia-Herzegovina’, Alexandra Stiglmayer (ed.) (Lincoln and London, 1994)
Stiglmayer, Alexandra (ed.), Mass Rape: The War against Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina
(Lincoln, 1994)

Hamel, M.-E. (2016). Ethnic belonging of the children born out of rape in postconflict Bosnia-Herzegovina and Rwanda. Nations and Nationalism , 22 (2), 287- 304.

5b) Africa

D’Costa, B. (2008). Victory’s silence: War babies in Bangladesh, Himal Southasian (pp. 56-59). Retrieved from http://www.himalmag.com/tbc.php?bid=167

Baldi, G., & MacKenzie, M. (2007). Silent identities. Children born of war in Sierra Leone. In R. C. Carpenter, (Ed.), Born of war: Protecting children of sexual violence survivors in conflict zones (pp. 78-93). Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.

Borgersrud, L. (2004). Staten og krigsbarna: En historisk undersøkelse av statsmyndighetenes behandling av krigsbarna i de første etterkrigsårene / The state and war children. A historical survey of the state government’s treatment of war children in the first years after the war. (pp. 85-137). University of Oslo. Retrieved from https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/nou-2004-23/id387932/?ch=17

Denov, M., Lakor, A. (2017). When war is better than peace: The post-conflict realities of children born of wartime rape in northern Uganda. Child Abuse and Neglect , 65, 255–265. 

Mukangendo, M. C. (2007). Caring for children born of rape in Rwanda. In R. C. Carpenter, (Ed.), Born of war: Protecting children of sexual violence survivors in conflict zones (pp. 40-52). Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.

Torgovnik, J. (2009). Intended consequences: Rwandan children born of rape. New York: Aperture.

Apio, E. O. (2016). Children born of war in northern Uganda: kinship, marriage, and the politics of post-conflict reintegration in Lango society. Doctoral Dissertion. University of Birmingham.

Apio, E. (2002). Challenges of integrating children born in armed conflict; A study of children born of the Lord’s Resistance, Gulu Municipality, 1990-2003. M.A. thesis, Makere University. In C. Bob (Ed.). (2010), The International Struggle for New Human Rights . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Denov, M., Wooler, L., Bahati J. P., Nsuki, P., Shyaka, O. (2017). The Intergenerational Legacy of Genocidal Rape: The Realities and Perspectives of Children Born of the Rwandan Genocide. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260517708407


East Timor


Csete, J. Human Rights Watch. 2002. “The War within the War: Sexual Violence Against
Women and Girls in Eastern Congo” http://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/drc/.
Groves, G, Resurreccion, B, Doneys, P. ‘Keeping the Peace is Not Enough: Human Security
and Gender-based Violence during the Transitional Period of Timor-Leste’, Journal of Social
Issues in Southeast Asia, 24, 2, (2009), pp. 186-210
Robertson, K. “Case Study on Gender-Based Violence in Timor Leste”, PRADET Timor
Lorosa’e, prepared for UNFPA Women, Peace, and Security Project, 2005

Harris Rimmer, S. (2007). Orphans or veterans? Justice for children born of rape in East Timor.


Rwanda

Hamel, M.-E. (2016). Ethnic belonging of the children born out of rape in postconflict Bosnia-Herzegovina and Rwanda. Nations and Nationalism , 22 (2), 287- 304.


Dixon, Violet. K., ‘A Study in Violence: Examining Rape in the 1994 Rwandan Genocide’
[http://www.studentpulse.com/89/a-study-in-violence-examining-rape-in-the-1994-rwandan-
genocide], 14 December 2009

Mukangendo, M. C. (2007). Caring for children born of rape in Rwanda. In R. C. Carpenter, (Ed.), Born of war: Protecting children of sexual violence survivors in conflict zones (pp. 40-52). Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.


Human Rights Watch/Africa. “Shattered lives: sexual violence during the Rwandan genocide
and its aftermath” Violence & Abuse Abstracts, 5, 1, 1999

McKinley, J. C. Jr. “Legacy of Rwanda Violence: the Thousands Born of Rape” The New
York Times, September 23 1996, 1
Nowrojee, Bianfer. Shattered Lives: Sexual Violence During the Rwandan Genocide and its
Aftermath. NY: Human Rights Watch 1996


6) Biographies, Autobiographies and Recollections or Children Born of War
Bass, T. A. Vietnamerica, The War Comes Home. (New York, 1996).

5c) North America

McKelvey, R. S. (1999). The dust of life: America’s children abandoned in Vietnam. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

5d) South America

No literature known so far

5e) Asian Pacific

D’Costa, B. (2008). Victory’s silence: War babies in Bangladesh, Himal Southasian (pp. 56-59). Retrieved from http://www.himalmag.com/tbc.php?bid=167

5f) Rest of the world

No literature known


6) Responses to Issues Relating to Children Born of War


Aaldrich, G.H. and Th. A. can Baarda. Conference on the Rights of Children in Armed
Conflict: Final Report on a conference Held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (The Hague:
International Dialogue Foundation, 1994)

Baker, J. ‘The Children They Left Behind’, Lest We Forget, 4, 2, 1996.
[http://lestweforget.hamptonu.edu/page.cfm?uuid=9FEC4352-FCC8-C499-
64C306903814BD7A]


Bennett, A. ‘The Reintegration of Child Ex-Combatants in Sierra Leone with Particular Focus
on the Needs of Females’, 2002. [www.essex.ac.uk/armedcon/story_id/000025.doc]


Brysk, A,.’Children Across Borders: Partimony, Property or Persons?’, in Brysk A. and G.
Shafir (eds.) People Out of Place: Globalization, Human Rights, and the Citizenship Gap
(New York, 2004)


Doek, J. Article 8: the right to preservation of identity; Article 9: the right not to be separated
from his or her parents (Leiden, Boston, 2006)


Goodman, E., ‘Sloughing Off Fatherhood’, The Boston Globe Newspaper Company, October
9 1982


Harris, R. ‘The “Child of the Barbarian”: Rape, Race and Nationalism in France during the
First World War’, Past and Present 141, (1993) 170—206


Jordan, M., ‘Born of Rape’, Miami Herald, July 1, 1995


McGrory, M., ‘Bring Home Our Children of War’, Washington Post, November 22 1981.
Naik, A., ‘Protecting Children From The Protectors: Lessons From West Africa.’ 2002
[www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR15/fmr15.7 .pdf]


Powell, S., ‘East Timor’s Children of the Enemy’, The Weekend Australian, March 10 2001.
Provencher, R., War Babies. (Montreal, Quebec: Macumba Productions: 2002) [Film]


Smith, H., ‘Rape Victims Babies Pay the Price of War’, The Observer, April 16 2000.


UNICEF, Children Born of War Rape in Bosnia-Herzegovina: A Preliminary Study. (Sarajevo:
UNICEF 2005)


Weitsman, P., ‘Children Born of War and the Poitics of Identity’, (Ford Institute Working
Paper: University of Pittsburgh, 2005)


Livingston, G. “A Look at Interracial Adoption: An Act of Hope My Black Son, His White
Family and Our Together.” Washington Post, June 30 1996.


Wax, Emily, ‘Rwandans Are Struggling to Love Children of Hate’, Washington Post, March
28 2004


7) The Rights of the Children Born of War


Besson, S. ‘Enforcing the child’s rights to know her origins: contrasting approaches under the
convention on the rights of the child and the European Convention on Human Rights’,
International Journal of Law, Policy, and the Family, 21, 2, pp. 137-159

Choudhry, S. Fenwick, H. ‘Taking the rights of parents and children seriously: confronting the
welfare principle under the human rights act’, Oxford Journal of Legal studies, 26, 3, 2005,
pp. 453-492


Cullen, H. Children’s Rights, The European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights (Oxford,
2004)


Davis, M. F. Powell, R. ‘The International Convention on the Rights of the Child: a catalyst for
innovative child care policies’, Human Rights Quarterly, 25, 3, 2003, pp. 689-719


Detrick, S. ‘A commentary on the United Nations convention on the rights of the child’,
International Journal of Children’s Rights, 9, 1, 2001, pp. 63-67


Doek, J. ‘The United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of the Child and children belonging
to minority groups’, in Synergies in minority protection: European and international law
perspectives (Cambridge: 2008)


Grover, S. ‘On recognizing children’s universal rights: what needs to change in the
convention on the rights of the child’, International Journal of Children’s Rights, 12, 3, 2004,
pp. 259-271


Kilkelly, U. ‘The Child and the European Convention on Human Rights’, Cambridge Law
Journal, 60, 3, 2001, pp. 626-628


Payne, L. ‘Twenty years on: the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the
Child in the United Kingdom’, Children and Society, 23, 2, 2009, pp. 149-155


Plazy, J-M. ‘Droits de l’enfant et incapacité juridique de l’enfant entre droit international et
legislation nationale’ (‘Children’s rights and the legal incapacity of children between
international law and national legislation’), Informations sociales, 140, 2007, pp. 28-37


Quennerstedt, A. ‘Balancing the rights of the child and the rights of parents in the Convention
on the Rights of the Child’, Journal of Human Rights, 8, 2, 2009, pp. 162-176


Ronen, Y. ‘Redefining the child’s rights to identity’, International Journal of Law, Policy and
the Family, 18, 2, 2004, pp. 147-177


Salazar-Volkmann, C. ‘30 years after the war: Children, families, and rights in Vietnam’,
International Journal of Law, Policy, and the Family’, 19, 1, 2005, pp. 23-46


Schiessl, Christoph. ‘An element of genocide: rape, total war, and international law in the
twentieth century’, Journal of Genocide Research, 4, 2, (2002), pp. 197-210


Willems, J. ‘The Convention on the Rights of the Child: orientation and conceptualization of
children’s rights’ in Developmental and autonomy rights of children: empowering children,
caregivers and communities (Antwerp, New York: 2007)


8) Advocacy: Sexual Exploitation, Violence, and Children Born of War


Amnesty International (ed.), Lives blown apart: Crimes against women in times of conflict
(London, 2004)

Amnesty International, (ed.) Democratic Republic of Congo Mass rape: Time for remedies
(London, 2005)

Denov, M. and Lakor, A. A. ‘When war is better than peace: The post-conflict realities of
children born of wartime rape in northern Uganda’, Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 65, 255-265.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.02.014


Keck, Margaret and Kathryn Sikkink, Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in
International Politics (Ithaca, 1998)


Khushalani, Y., Dignity and Honour of Women as Basic and Fundamental Human Rights
(Boston, 1982)


Hughes, D. M. and Foster, K., ‘War, Nationalism and Rape: Women Responded by Opening
a Center Against Sexual Violence in Belgrade, Serbia’, Women’s Studies International
Forum, 19, 1-2, 1996


Medica Mondiale. “Violence against women in war: Handbook for professionals working with
traumatised women”, Mabuse, 2005


Nowrojee, Bianfer, Shattered Lives: Sexual Violence during the Rwandan Genocide and its
Aftermath, (New York, Washington, London, Brussels: Human Rights Watch, 1996)


Interagency Standing Committee. ‘Guidelines for Gender-Based Violence Interventions in
Humanitarian Settings: Focusing on Prevention of and Response to Sexual Violence in
Emergencies’, Geneva, 2005


International Rescue Committee. Final Report: Sexual Gender-Based Violence Program,
Rwanda. (Nairobi, Kenya, 2004)


Lindsey-Curtet, Charlotte, Florence Tercier Holst-Roness, and Letitia Anderson, ‘Addressing
the Needs of Women Affected by Armed Conflict’ (Geneva: International Committee of the
Red Cross, 2004)


UNHCR (ed.), The Gender-Based Violence Global Technical Support Project. “Checklist for
Action: Prevention and Response to Gender-Based Violence in Displaced Settings, Adapted
from a checklist developed by UNHCR, Geneva, 2003’ (Arlington, 2003)


UNHCR (ed.), Synopsis, Sexual and Gender-Based Violence Against Refugees, Returnees,
and Internally Displaced Persons: Guidelines for Prevention and Response (UNHCR: 2003)


(Arlington, 2004) [www.unhcr.org/protect/PROTECTION/3f696bcc4.pdf].
Copelon, Rhonda, ‘Suffering Gender: Reengraving Crimes Against Women in Humanitarian
Law’, Hastings Women’s Law Journal 5 (1994) 243—265.


Gullace, N. F., ‘Sexual Violence and Family Honor: British Propaganda and International Law
During the First World War’, The American Historical Review, 102 (3) (1997), 714—747.


Justice and Reconciliation Project (2015). Alone Like a Tree: Reintegration Challenges
facing Children Born of War and Their Mothers in Northern Uganda. Uganda: Justice and
Reconciliation Project (JRP). Retrieved from: http://justiceandreconciliation.com/wp-
content/uploads/2015/06/Alone-Like-A-Tree-Reintegration-Challenges-Facing-Children-Born-
of-War-and-Their-Mothers-in-Northern-Uganda1.pdf

Justice and Reconciliation Project (2015). We Are All the Same: Experiences of children born
into LRA captivity. Uganda: Justice and Reconciliation Project (JRP). Retrieved from:
http://justiceandreconciliation.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/We-Are-All-The-Same-
Experiences-of-children-born-into-LRA-captivity-2015-12-22.pdf


Mukasa, N. (2017) War-child mothers in northern Uganda: the civil war forgotten legacy,
Development in Practice, 27:3, 354-367, DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2017.1294147
Niarchos, C. N., ‘Women, War and Rape: Challenges Facing the International Tribunal for
the Former Yugoslavia’, Human Rights Quarterly, 17 (4) (1995), 649—690.


Theidon, K., ‘Hidden in Plain Sight: Children Born of Wartime Sexual Violence.’ Special
Issue, “The Death of the Secret: Public and Private in Anthropology,” Current Anthropology vol. 56 Supplement, 2015.


Trexler, R. Sex and Conquest: Gendered Violence, Political Order, and the European
Conquest of the America (New York, 1995).


Turshen, M. “The Political Economy of Rape: An Analysis of Systematic Rape and Sexual Abuse of Women during Armed Conflict in Africa” in Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence, edited by Caroline, O.N. Moser and Fiona C. Clark (London & New York, 2002).